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Luis Salvador Neto: The challenges of the african migration Introduction The migration process started with civilization, therefore the history of mankind is strongly linked to that of the migration of the peoples. The waves of migration resulted in population mixing or, sometimes, in a completely changed general public. The study aims first of all to present and analyze the challenges of the African migration, focusing on the migration situation in the Sub-Saharan region.
The main reasons of the African migration are: development gap in social, economic and political structures, deep poverty, civil war and economic inequalities. African society was formed by several waves of migration processes.
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In the last decades migration has become one of the most important political-legal issues in Africa. Due to the lack of legislation the migration issue has come to the front in Africa as well.
The continent, particularly the Sub-Saharan region, has come to a crossroads, and is therefore facing challenges and opportunities regarding the migration question.
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Consequently, we need effective practical handling. One possible solution is continuous border control, the other the effectiveness of migrational diplomacy.
In some African countries we have to pay intensive attention to conflicts regarding human rights violation, the balking of corruption, the illegal migration and to the refugee waves. Population growth also represents considerable challenges for the continent, since there is a considerable gap between the number of working-age population and the number of new jobs.
Overcrowded regions force people to look for new destinations offering acceptable quality anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés life.
The situation of the African migration In Antiquity the African slave trade was a forced form of migration, not based on a free will, through which the Mediterranean regions were overwhelmed with African slaves.
From the 16th century onwards this particular form of migration could be seen not only in the Eastern, but also in the Western regions, so that by the 18th century the yearly slave trade reached the order of magnitude of one hundred thousand.
Slaves were transported by force to the American continent above all, not to Europe, still, we cannot disregard the number of those few tens of thousands of slaves, who were brought to Europe. In aristocratic circles it became current to employ slaves as manservant or carter, some of them even succeeded in gaining excellent reputation.
Other typologies also exist, like regulated and unregulated migration.
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Recent times are characterized by forced migration, due to poverty, natural catastrophes, violation of human rights and increased armed conflicts. Considering that migration we now face is unprecedented in its scope, the 21st century could be called the era of mass migration. In different historical times the number of African immigrants has not changed at the same space.
Around the number of immigrants was appr.
Europe only precedes Asia by a few percents, but Latin-America and Oceania show a considerable backlog. Those with higher education degrees choose the developed countries, so both Ghana or Kenya belong to those countries, whose inhabitants moved to developed countries.
The money they send home keeps being considerable, it amounted to more than bio USD by Regarding money transfers home we can observe continuous changes between the different regions, the Sub-Saharan countries have in the meantime replaced the North-African regions, but the Sub-Saharan countries still receive fewer contributions.
For the mother country the departed labour means a considerable loss and a painfully redressable social and economic problem, insofar as we speak of a small number of skilled labour, and migration syphons-off intellectual and human capacities. Nowadays we can say that Angola, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Ghana, Gabon, Libya, Kenya and the South African Republic are becoming migration destinations in their own right, in fact, behind the migration in the Sub-Saharan region lies an aggregation of intracontinental processes.
Decreasing armed conflicts could result in a reduced number of migrants within the continent. While in there were 5 million refugees living in Africa, by this decreased to appr. However, we cannot disregard all those who live as refugees in their own country. Refugees mean a anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés burden for the receiving State.
With regard to the future, the inclusion of immigrants is an issue not to be neglected and presents serious challenges to the African countries. Moreover, at own cost, students have access to Chinese diplomatic studies. At the beginning of an estimated 2,5 million migrant workers worked in Libya, appr. According to forecasts the global warming will affect the countries of Africa more intensively, and this, coupled with the exceptional demographic growth, will result in the exhaustion of the water reserves, therefore it is evident that the changes would generate population flows.
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Escape caused by natural catastrophes will therefore result anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés an increased number of ecological refugees. The serious difficulty of migration also affects qualified professionals, who, in the hope of better living conditions and higher salaries, will move to developing countries.
The receiving countries need these workers. The migration of professionals, of doctors and engineers in the first place, means a serious problem for the continent, and this economic development has to be rectified with economic counter measures.
In recent years, due to a developed economy and relative stability, South Africa was characterized by a great deal of immigration.
As opposed to the migration departing from Africa, we have to pay attention to the migration within the continent and to the migration into Africa. In 9 million immigrants of African origin were living in Europa, 4 million in Asia and 2 million in North-America.
On svájci rapper anti aging contrary, Africa only became home to 2,3 million immigrants of Asian and European origin. The biggest migration channels can be found between the North-African countries, e. Additionally, a considerable migration channel is linked to the Gulf States, e. These channels offer a snapshot of the migration process, essential populations of foreign origin were born through them in the countries of destination.
As a result of the long lasting conflicts, the second biggest refugee group was that from Somalia, as well as from Sudan, the Congo Democratic Republic, Erithrea and the Central African Republic. The main lever to boost North-African migration is the enormous difference regarding income and unemployment between the country of origin and the country of destination. As a result, in appr.
For the immigrants the North-African micro region mostly serves as transit anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés, but it is noteworthy that in Libya had the highest number of international immigrants, amounting to more than While we had considered Morocco to be traditionally a country of emigration, nowadays it has become more and more a country of destination, including its immigrants from other African countries, who spend an indefinite duration in Morocco until they find their way to Europe.
The main triggering cause of North-African migration are the often violent conflicts in the micro regions. At the end of the majority of the refugees from Sudan found a home in the neighboring Tschad and South Sudan, while Sudan remains an important country of immigration, having received at the same time more than In spite of the agreements on free movement illegal migration still exists between the Western- and Central African states, considering that in the case anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés immigrants with destination to Europe through the Mediterranean Nigeria is an important transit country, and even on the territories which guarantee free movement, human trafficking accross the borders is not rare either.
Moreover, several Western-African countries have a very porous structure, lacking security measures, which favors illegal movements accross borders. The climatic changes of the region influence living conditions, and, despite all agricultural growth, the region keeps being characterized by food insecurity. Complex and interrelated ambiental changes, like draught and floods, as well as climatic changes, all contribute to mobility across borders and within the country — between villages and the city.
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In the South-African micro region — similarly to the Eastern-African countries — illegal migration is vastly spread. Myriad immigrants originate from Ethiopia and Somalia, who mostly arrive to the Southernmost territories of Africa through trafficking.
During the transport many of them travel anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés inhuman conditions anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés often experience blackmail and physical violence before they arrive to the country of destination, but many of them, lose their life in the rough travel circumstances. However repulsive the cause for forced migration may be, according to Endre Sík in the sociological sense there is no substantive difference between escape and forced migration.
In both cases the decisive factor is the anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés duress, there is nearly no time to prepare the migration, not to mention that the immigrant has to spend money to lessen the impact of the crisis. According to forecasts myriads of people will leave their homes in the next ten years, in view of a restart in the cities, but this will not necessarily mean a higher standard of living, considering that in certain African municipal areas the population lives in illegal accommodations.
The informal settlements lack basic services which would lead to mass health issues.
Taking into account that the food reduction per capita to date has been outstanding, the food crisis will lead to mass emigration. One or two, seemingly insoluble ethnical issues; inflexible governmental employment policy, unable to handle unemployment in the case of skilled workforce; the loss of real income or the depreciaton of the value of the currency, all these can be triggering causes.
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Other factors also play a role in the willingness to migrate, like the possibility to reach higher income and standard of living, which motivate the skilled workforce. It is important to identify the correlations between migration and development, which have anti aging svájci bevándorlásellenes kezdeményezés more propounced between the Northern and Southern States, due to brain drain.